Pre History- It is the history of human culture prior to written records. The human of this period has not civilized.the history of this period is situated by Archaeological evidences.

The Pre-history phase can be roughly divided into 3 parts:(A) Paleolithic (250,000-10,000 BC) (B) Mesolithic (10,000-6000 BC) (C) Neolithic (6000-2500 BC)
 The fossils of the early human being have not been found in india,but in Africa about 2.6 million years back . So, it appears that india was later than Africa.
 The recent reported artefacts from BORI in maharastra suggest the appearance of human beings in india around 1.4 million years ago.

Proto History

It is the period between prehistory and history, during which a culture or civilization has not yet developed writing, but other cultures have already noted its existence in their own writings, duration of this period is 2500 B.C to 600 B.C.

Historical Period –

The historic period whose information available in written records in considered as Historical period. Human of this were civilized and historical activities after 600 B.C ,included in this period.

 Study of development of scripts- Palaeography
 Study of inscription- epigraphy  Study of coins- numismatics
 Study of monuments, material remains-Archeology
 Ramayana – Valmiki
 Mahabharat- Ved Vyas
 Arthashastra – Kautilya
 Jataka stories- Budhha’s
 Rama charita- Sandhyakar nandi
 Gaudavhu – Vakpati
 Rajatarangini- Kalhana
Malavikagnimitram- Kalidas
 Abhgyashakuntalam- Kalidas
 Harshacharitra- Banabhatta
The Pre-history phase can be roughly divided into 3 parts:(A) Paleolithic (250,000-10,000 BC) (B) Mesolithic (10,000-6000 BC) (C) Neolithic (6000-2500 BC).
PALEOLITHIC AGE (250,000-10,000 B.C)
 Paleolithic culture developed in the plestocene period
(When ice covered the earth’s surface)
Main tools- handaxes, cleavers, choppers, flakes, burins, scrapers
Made of hard rocks called “QUARTZITE”
 They are “hunting and food gathering”
 Lived in cave rock shelters.  No knowledge of agriculture , fire or pottery of any mental.
 HOMO SAPIENS first appeared in the last of this phase.
 They are belongs to the “Negrito” race.
 The Paleolithic Age in India has been divided into three phases.
MESOLITHHIC AGE(10,000-60000 B.C)
 Blade , Mesolithic tools are microliths
 Important sites of Mesolithic age are bagor , langhraj , sarai nahar rai and birbhanpur.
 Adamgarh in Madhya Pradesh and Bagor in Rajasthan provide the earliest evidence for the domestication of animals.
 Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh is a striking site of pre-historic painting.
NEOLITHIC AGE (6000-2500 B.C)
 The term ‘Neolithic’ was coined by sir john Lubbock in his “Pre-Historic Times”
 Neolithic men cultivated land and grew fruits and corn like ragi and horse gress.they domesticated cattle , sheep and goat.
 It is interesting that in “BURZAHOM” domestic dogs were buried with their masters in their graves.
 Koldhiwa in UP revealed a three fold culture sequence; Neolithic, chalcolithic and Iron Age.
 Mehargarh in Baluchistan is the oldest Neolithic site in India.
 Important sites includes chhotanagapur region , central India and south of the Krishna river.
 Belan valley of vindhyas and middle part of the Narmada valley shows all the three phases of stone age.
 This phase is also called as chalcolithic phase.
 It is characterized by the use of stone and copper.
 Chalcolithic people were not acquainted with burnt brick.
 People used different types of pottery of which black and red ware was most popular.
 They worshipped mother goddess and bull.  They generally lived in thatched houses.


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